Scope of Pharmacology
June 1, 2022
In recent times, new drugs are mostly developed by organic chemist working with a pharmacologist, increasingly from basic knowledge about key molecular targets. Usually some sort of biological screen is used to select among organic molecules for optimum pharmacological activity
Chemistry – Chemical structures of drugs can provide information about mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, stability, and metabolic rate. Students of Pharmacy college in Jaipur are taught about chemistry in detail.
1. Structure-Activity Relationship – A modification of the chemical structure of a drug may accentuate or diminish its pharmacological effects, often providing clues as to the mechanism of action. A picture of the biological reactive site (the receptor) can be developed in such studies. Also, drugs are metabolized by body systems, which may convert the parent drug to a more active or a less active form. The drug structure can be modified to enhance or diminish the rate of metabolic conversion.
2. Sites of Action – The organ or cellular target of drug action.
Pharmacodynamics – The effect of the drug on the body. Pharmaco-dynamics as the study of the relationship of drug concentration and the biologic effect (physiological or biochemical) is taught in Pharmacy college in Jaipur. For most drugs, it is essential to know the site of action and mechanism of action at the level of the organ, functional system, or tissue. For example, the drug effect may be localized to the brain, the neuromuscular junction, the heart, the kidney, etc.
Often the mechanism of action can be described in biochemical or molecular terms. Most drugs exert effects on several organs or tissues, and have unwanted as well as therapeutic effects. There is a dose-response relationship for wanted and toxic effects. Patient factors affect drug responses – age, weight, sex, diet, race, genetic factors, disease type, trauma, concurrent drugs, etc. Pharmacokinetics – To produce its characteristic effects, a drug must be present in appropriate concentrations at its sites of action. Thus, it is important to know the interrelationship of the absorption, distribution, binding, biotransformation, and excretion of a drug and its concentration at its locus of action which is taught in Pharmacy college in Jaipur.
Pharmacology and Therapeutics
1. Indications and Therapeutic Uses – Emphasis is placed on the therapeutic use of drugs for the treatment of disease in clinical pharmacology, internal medicine and therapeutics. There are specific clinic disorders or disease entities for which a given drug may be prescribed and the physician must weigh the potential benefit of drug use against the risks of adverse effects.
2.Posology- It is a term describing dosage regimens. Consideration of dosage schedules is a part of pharmacokinetics.
Toxicology – That aspect of pharmacology that deals with the adverse effects of chemical agents. Toxicology is concerned not only with drugs used in therapy but also with the other chemicals that may be responsible for household, environmental or industrial intoxication.